Here you can find answers to our most frequently asked questions, written as if you were asking the question.  If you can’t find the answer you’re looking for try searching for it back at the home page, or get in touch

How does the ADR and ECE Regulation 105 legislation affect my vehicle?


If you transport dangerous goods on the road which are covered by the United Nations ADR regulations, you will need to make sure that the vehicle you use is approved to the relevant legislation, include ECE Regulation 105.

There are several rules and pieces of legislation which cover the construction and use of vehicles in addition to other articles which cover vehicle lighting, loading and standard construction on British and European roads; but ECE Regulation 105 focuses specifically on the enhancements required to the design of a vehicle required to ensured continued safety of its contents, operators and the public.

One area of the regulations covers the wiring and cabling required for the vehicle.  We offer a product, called LITE-wire, which dramatically reduces the time and materials needed to fit out a vehicle or trailer with the usual lighting products you would normally find, including marker lighting, beacons, work lights and interior lighting.

This product meets the needs of the regulation by offering ADR approved cabling throughout the system, as well as featuring type approved electrical connections.

There are four types of cabling which are permitted during type approval of this type of vehicle and two of those need mechanical protection in the form of polyamide conduit.  The other two are steel braid reinforced cable or wire that features a separate sleeve, of which LITE-wire’s cabling is formed.

The obvious advantages in addition to the benefits that the digital control system brings to your vehicle include the massive reduction in labour and cable required by traditional wiring systems, as well as the reduction of conduit and accessory fitting (except where there is a high-risk of accidental damage from moving parts) in material costs.

We offer specialist advice and can arrange demonstrations of the LITE-wire system with our partners nationwide.  As part of these sessions, we can explore the suitability of the system with you and help to design the wiring layout of your vehicle/trailer and this includes a risk assessment of any apparent risk areas which require the mechanical protection we’ve already covered.

LITE-wire is a modern, forward-looking wiring solution which you can use to reduce cost, time and servicing and we would love to discuss your requirements today.  Please call us on 01763 274185 or email us at sales@dun-bri.com…

For more information on Lite-wire, please visit the website of Dun-Bri Engineering our dedicated cabling and wiring division at http://www.dun-bri-engineering.com/.  More information on the United Nations ADR regulations and ECE Regulation 105 can be obtained directly from your Sales contact within Dun-Bri Group.

What’s the minimum current to operate a relay?

We are often asked what is the minimum current required to operate one of the Dun-Bri Group branded relays.  The answer is surprising straightforward;


Operating voltage Minimum current
Relay 12v 120mA
24v 60mA


For more help, particularly when identifying relays please contact us.

What’s the difference between a CMOS and CCD reversing camera?

When browsing the different cameras available from Dun-Bri, you will notice video camera manufacturers that offer two types of image sensors: CCD and CMOS.  These image sensors are used to produce the digital images during recording.  Both types are made of silicon and use similar mechanisms to process images, but each type uses different technology to capture and transfer image signals, and some users find that there can be a significant difference between the end results.

In essence, a CCD video camera and a CMOS video camera have different processing efficiencies, different qualities, different paired accessories, and are even different prices.  Understanding how each type of sensor works and the strengths and weaknesses of each helps buyers determine the technology that is suitable for their video camera needs.


CCD (Charged Coupled Device)
The CCD video camera has been the go-to sensor since its development.  In a CCD video camera, light hitting the image sensor is converted to an electrical signal.  This electron packet must then be transferred one pixel at a time through an output node to an image processor, at which point it is converted to voltage.  The voltage is then buffered and sent out from the chip as an analogue signal.

The CCD process involves an extra step over CMOS sensors (the transfer of each pixel to an image processor) and therefore requires more time and energy to process imagery.  However, because each pixel is devoted to capturing light, CCD sensors have a high output uniformity that results in cleaner, higher-quality images.  In a three-CCD (3CCD) camera, the imaging system uses three separate CCDs, with each one measuring a different primary colour (red, green, or blue).  This allows them to provide an even better image quality while also producing lower noise.

CCD sensors are also distinct from CMOS for their use of global shutters instead of rolling shutters.  Global shutters process an entire image at once by exposing the full frame for a predetermined amount of time.  This means the entire sensor gathers an equal amount of light at once. Global shutters are free of the image distortion related to rapid movement or flashes of light.


CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor)
Unlike CCD sensors, CMOS sensors have circuitry at the pixel level.  This means that every pixel on the sensor is read and transmitted simultaneously, preparing voltage for the chip.  The chip then uses additional technology, such as amplifiers, noise correction, and digitisation, to convert the voltage to digital data.  This means that CMOS sensors do not require a separate image processor.  Because CMOS sensors are able to convert visual information to digital data more quickly than CCDs, they require less power, which preserves battery life.  However, the extra technology on the sensor crowds the pixels, limiting their ability to capture light and resulting in generally poorer visual clarity in the final image.

CMOS sensors are commonly designed with rolling shutters, especially on commercial applications.  This means that the image frame is exposed from one side to the other, instead of all at once as on CCD sensors.  For example, a reversing camera using a CMOS sensor may record data in a “rolling” sweep from left to right, or top to bottom.  This results in the potential for a few types of distortion not found on CCD sensors.


So, which one is best for me?
CCD technology was traditionally the dominant sensor since the development of the two forms in the late 1960s and early 1970s.  This was mostly due to CCD’s ability to produce better image quality than CMOS with the manufacturing abilities of the time.  However, developments in lithography in the 1990s allowed designers to produce CMOS sensors in a way that provided quality images at a lower cost than CCD. It was these developments that led to the inclusion of CMOS sensors in digital cameras, ultimately making the products affordable for the general public.

Although CCDs have set the benchmarks for image sensor performance, developments in CMOS have greatly reduced the differences in image quality between them. Meanwhile, developers of CCD sensors have worked to lower the cost of the technology. Contradictory to past perceptions of the sensors, modern forms of CCDs have become inexpensive enough to be used in applications like cell phone cameras, while some high-performance cameras in professional and industrial applications use CMOS technology.

In general, CCD cameras can produce higher resolution images with less noise.  They are also more sensitive to light, which means that they produce higher-quality images in low-light settings.  CMOS cameras are more energy efficient, which means the battery life is longer.  They are also generally less expensive.  However, many of these differences have already become negligible in modern products.  For example, a high-end CMOS camera may produce clearer images than a mid-range CCD camera.

Ultimately, buyers of commercial video camera products may find that the sensor technology used in a video camera is less relevant than the manufacturer and the other tech specs of the camera. Modern developments in each type of sensor technology have made them quite comparable in terms of the amount of power used, their price, and their image quality.  Some companies have taken the best part of both technologies and found a way to meld them together to make a great video camera.

For more help in choosing, please get in touch.

What’s the difference between raw and effective lumens?

A frequently asked question relates to the difference between raw and effective lumens, displayed alongside our LED lamps.  Output values (lumens) can vary dramatically depending on which values are being quoted.


Raw lumens

This is a measure of the theoretical output of a light.  Raw lumen output is calculated by multiplying by the theoretical rated output of the LEDs by the number of LEDs in the lamp.

An example calculation:

8 LEDs rated at 100 lumens per emitter
8 x 100 = 800 Raw lumens


Effective lumens

This is a measure of the actual output of a light.  The Effective lumen output takes into consideration electrical and real world losses (ex. thermal, optical, and assembly), so it is a better representation of the useful visible light that is actually produced.

An example calculation:

Raw Lumens = 800
Thermal, Optical & Assembly Losses = 40% (of Raw lumens)
800 – 320 = 480 Effective lumens


For more information including on thermal, optical and assembly losses covered during our design and development process, please contact us.

What does AQL mean on disposable gloves?

AQL means the Accepted Quality Level for disposable gloves. This refers to an internationally used quality standard for measuring the percentage of pinhole defects in disposable gloves. All gloves can have some tiny pinholes in them; this includes all nitrile, latex, sterile and non sterile gloves.

The test process involves checking batches of gloves during manufacturing to see how watertight they are. The most important thing to remember is that the lower the AQL number, the greater the amount of the protection you will have for your hands. This is reflected in the price too, which is directly comparable to the level of protection offered.

In the UK and Europe, the most common ratings are 1.5 and 4.0 but you can also commonly find 1.0 and 0.65 AQL rated gloves. These are often used in specialist areas such as chemotherapy clinics and microbiology laboratories. One thing to look out for, particularly when purchasing from well known auction sites is that some gloves that are imported from the USA often have a AQL of 2.5 as they have a poorer standard acceptable for non sterile examination gloves.

Also see: EN455 & Medical Gloves


What does EN455 mean on disposable gloves?

EN455 relates to a regulation covering Medical Gloves for Single Use.  Part 1 is the Requirements and Testing for Freedom From Holes.

Gloves must pass this test in order to prove that they are an effective barrier against micro-organisms.  A statistical sample taken from a batch of gloves is subject to checks for pinholes and leaks by filling with water. Gloves must achieve acceptance quality limit (AQL) of 1.5 or better in order to be used as examination, procedure or surgical gloves.

AQL 1.5 is equivalent to a maximum risk of 1.5% that any given glove contains a pinhole capable of allowing water, and therefore micro-organisms, through the film.

Also see: AQL ratings

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